(上)如何選購太陽能熱水器
  • 作者 Andy0215
  • 發表日期 04.07.2012
  • 文章分類 熱水器
  • 引用 0
  • 閱讀人數 14215
  • 迴響 375

 

近年來,在油電雙漲與節能減碳的環保意識高漲下,太陽能熱水器具備低碳排、回收快及產品成熟穩定的眾多優點,在長年政府持續補助推動下,關注度再度被重視。因太陽能熱水器用途不同也分家庭用與工程、營業用,本文以家庭使用者為對象,提供一般民眾在選購太陽能熱水器時,需要知道的一些基本知識做為參考,希望能夠挑選真正符合使用需求的太陽能熱水器,以下提供5點建議

一、考量使用者人數
太陽能熱水器第一步,要先確定使用人數,做儲水容量的依據,如同在選擇家電的冰箱,需要幾公升以及洗衣機要買到幾公斤,都是以〝多少人〞使用為依據,這當然也牽涉到購置的成本,在這裡就提供一個數據做參考,一般人洗澡的用水量以淋浴方式而言,約在50-80公升不等(視個人習慣),另外女性洗頭髮需要的用水量較多,舉例來說,如果家中有5位成人,成年男性3位,女性各2位,(60*3)+(80*2)=360L,所以容量建議選擇400L,使用上也較為舒適。當然儲水桶的容量越大,所需要搭配的集熱板也就需要越大,一般來說單片可搭配200L,300L以雙片搭配較多,而3片則會搭配到400公升,但隨不同品牌的規劃,會有設計上的差異。

二、考量洗澡的習慣
在台灣目前洗澡方式淋浴佔比8-9成,通常淋浴用水量較省,當然和使用時間長短相關;沐浴泡澡的用水量較多,且浴缸越大熱水需求量相對就越多,而使用時間,多數使用者都是在太陽下山後洗澡,所使用的熱水,是由一整天所吸收的太陽能輻射熱所加熱後,儲存在保溫桶內以供使用。

三、內部環境-設備搭配
除了先前提到浴缸所需要的熱水需求較高,還需要考量到內部設備,如有大型按摩浴缸,花灑、淋浴水柱、SPA..等特殊的衛浴設備,就需要搭配合適、對等的供水設備。如按摩浴缸因容量較大,熱水器的出口管徑就需大些,才能縮短供水時間。另外SPA水柱則需要強大水壓才能達到應有按摩效果,此時必須裝設加壓馬達供水 ; 但是當加壓供水時,必須維持冷熱水壓平衡,才不會有忽冷忽熱的問題,太陽能熱水器出水,搭配恆壓式馬達才會較舒適。

四、外部環境 –安裝環境
(一)日照方向與安裝位置
為了求所能吸收太陽輻射之最大值,提升效能並且在冬天時有較多之太陽照射量,專業的安裝人員,在安裝時將優先考量集熱板位置,以朝南、傾斜角約在 25°∼30° 間之方位效能較佳,並且會避免鄰近建物如女兒牆、水塔等,所產生的陰影遮蔭現象,降低效能。

(二)安全性
台灣地理環境颱風多,在經年強風吹襲下之的整體結構安全性,這部分對應到了集熱板的結構設計與支撐腳架,是否特別針對颱風侵襲,有做特殊的加強防範,提升整體耐用性,以上這兩個部分與施工團隊的專業性有絕對的關係,希望消費者能夠多加注意。

(三)區域水質
影響太陽能熱水器之使用壽命主要原因除了上述颱風吹襲損害外,水質則是另一重要因素。而水質的問題可分為結水垢和腐蝕二種情況。由以往的調查顯示,使用地下水為熱水系統之水源時,其水質常發生較為明顯之腐蝕傾向,故在部分地區(南部)使用地下水為太陽能熱水器水源時,便須選擇抗腐蝕性較強的產品( 如不袗) 。
另外在結水垢方面,因水溫在超過約50度以上時,就容易產生碳酸鈣,也是俗稱的水垢、茶殆(台語),經過日積月累下,會讓太陽能熱水器的集熱效率減低,輕者拉長該系統之實質回收年限,嚴重者甚至會產生阻塞,需要更換集熱板,那就是相當大的一筆開銷。

所以使用者在安裝時,就需要多加留意地區水質的狀況,為了確保效能和壽命,以往的解決方法為每隔一段時間,請專業技術人員進行〝除水垢〞的作業 ,或在熱水入口處安裝軟水設備,近年來,技術領先的品牌則有〝間接加熱〞的系統方式,利用隔水加熱方式,可有效防止系統管路內部結垢的產生。

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